Saturday, March 14, 2020

Development Theories Essay Example

Development Theories Essay Example Development Theories Essay Development Theories Essay Development Theories Name: Course: Institution: Instructor: Date: Development Theories Behaviorist and psychosocial theories are among the famous human development theories. Each of these theories conceptualizes child and adolescence development in different ways. Behaviorist theory views child and adolescent development as a factor determined by experience and practices through reinforcement of the desired behavior. Psychosocial theory on the other hand purports that development occurs in a series of different stages of life, describing the influence of experience throughout the lifespan of a man. The two theories tend to have a similarity in terms of basing development in terms of experiences (Keenan, 2002). However, the experiences differ, where behaviorist focuses on reinforced behaviors while psychosocial focuses on ego identity. Behaviorist Theory Behaviorist theory suggests that development occurs through interaction within the environment. The theory utilized classical and operant conditioning as the main aspects of development. Classical conditioning is based on the assumption that development occurs through an association of environmental and natural stimuli. Operant conditioning on the other hand is about rewards and punishment to reinforce specific behaviors. This theory suggests that development occurs through such interaction where a teacher can reward good behaviors and punish bad behavior (Peet Hartwick, 2009). This happens the same way even for children at adolescent. Reinforcement and continuous practice until desired behavior is achieved is the main idea of behaviorist theory. Its strength is the use of behavior that can be reinforced, making it easier for experiments within a laboratory. Its biggest limitation is that it does not consider development through other methods such as observation. It argues that behavior is only developed through such reinforcement and response to stimuli. It does not consider other behavior development methods such as observation. Children do learn through observation as well. Psychosocial Theory Psychosocial theory is of the view that development of human beings is based on a series of stages. Its major element is ego identity, suggesting that self-consciousness or self-awareness develops through interaction with the environment at different stages of life. The first stage is usually the trust vs. mistrust that happens at birth to one year. At this stage, the infant develops trust through the care provided by the caregivers. The child is dependent and feels safe if he/she is able to develop trust. If caregivers are not good, the child does not develop full trust and does not feel safe. The second stage occurs during early childhood. It is about autonomy vs. shame where children develop personal control. At this stage, learning to control body function creates a feeling of independence and control. Initiative vs. guilt is the next stage of preschool children where they ascertain their control around them through directing things such as play. At this stage, the children feel their capability in matters such as leadership (Keenan, 2002). The fourth stage, industry vs. inferiority occurs from age of 5 to 11. At this stage, children develop a sense of pride through their accomplishments. Through encouragement, children are able to develop feelings of competence and confidence in their skills. At the fifth stage, identity vs. confusion, children are at their adolescent. At this stage, children explore more on their accomplishments to know themselves better (Peet Hartwick, 2009). Through encouragement on their cause of finding about self, people emerge with a great sense of identity and sure of themselves in life. Its strength is that the eight stages hold for long across different ages, explaining development from stage to stage. One of the limitations of the psychosocial theory is its failure to recognize different cultural backgrounds that could affect such development. For instance, some children could be trained in using the potty earlier while others might be trained later. Additionally, in some places, girls will get married at young ages, forcing them to be at another stage than the one meant for their age (Peet Hartwick, 2009). Thus, with such differences, the theory could not be applicable the same way to all people. A similarity with the behaviorist theory occurs in terms of using the experiences around one’s environment. The other similarity is that they are applicable for all generations including mature people. The difference is that behaviorist theory is not divided into stages as the psychosocial theory. References Keenan, T. (2002). An Introduction to Child Development. New York, N.Y: SAGE Peet, R., Hartwick, E. (2009). Theories of Development, Second Edition: Contentions, Arguments, Alternatives. New York, N.Y: Guilford Pres

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

UCTA Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

UCTA - Case Study Example The delivered car was found to be seriously defective and it evidently required repairs that would cost around a 1000. The practice prevailing in Thomas Co was that it always offered its customers the opportunity to purchase a two years service contract covering parts and labour on cars purchased from them. Smith Co had always declined such offers from Thomas Co. The remedies available to the Smith Co, under the statute, are discussed hereunder. A contract is an agreement giving rise to obligations which are enforced or recognised by law. The factor which distinguishes contractual from other legal rights is that they are based on the agreement of the contracting parties. It is important to bear in mind that every breach of a contract allows the plaintiff a remedy at law. The Sale of Goods Act states that consumers have been defined as people purchasing for purposes unrelated to their trade, business or profession. Section 12(1) of the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977, defines a consumer and this has three elements, the party dealing as a consumer must neither make the contract in the course of business nor hold himself out as doing so; the other party must make the contract in the course of business and finally, if the contract involves the transfer of goods, then they must be of a type ordinarily supplied for private use or consumption. The burden of proving that a ... Several similar purchases had been made before. The contract excluded liability for breach of certain statutory implied terms and the exclusion clause was subject to section 6 of the UCTA. The Court of Appeal held that the purchase of the car was only incidental to the company's business activity, which meant that the purchase was not made in the course of business and so the plaintiff company was dealing as a consumer. Thus the defendant could not exclude liability for the breach of implied terms1. Similarly, in our case the car was purchased for both private and business use. Hence, the status of the claimant can be considered as that of a consumer according to this act and the judgment in the above case. In Stevenson v Rogers the Court of Appeal held that a sale to a person who had no business connection to the seller would be considered a consumer2. Hence, in our case Smith Co can be considered as a consumer, since they had purchased the car for the private and business purposes of its director, this is in conformity with the broader view taken by the Appellate Court in respect of the term consumer in the case Stevenson v Rogers. Section 3 of the UCTA covers a number of different types of exclusions or restrictions in respect of liability and makes them all subject to the test of reasonableness. These tests are of four types and apply to the different types of exclusions. These are, first, in relation to a contract term the clause should have been fair and reasonable to have been included, having regard to the circumstances, and which could reasonably be expected to have been known to the parties. Second, contracts in relation to goods (section 6 and 7 UCTA) and section 11(2) and schedule 2 of the UCTA have specified five matters

Monday, February 10, 2020

Services Marketing - Internal marketing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Services Marketing - Internal marketing - Essay Example It has definite advantages over the traditional way of transacting business (Amit & Zott, 2000). It eliminates paper and paper work through market automation, online transactions and payments. The governments too use the e-platform to offers service to the public Another commonly used definition of service is proposed by Kotler (1991). "Any act or performance that one party can offer to another that is essentially intangible and does not result in the ownership of anything. Provision of services and information through the internet is the primary objective of the government in most developed countries (Buckley, 2003). The private sector is much ahead in offering web based services and the motivation and outcome in web based public and private sectors provision of services differ. In the public sector the motivation and the objectives in offering e-services are numerous which makes it difficult to measure the service quality. The motivation and objectives in the private sector centre on profits and hence easily measurable. Two web based service offerings - one each from the public and private sector would be assessed in line with current service marketing models. The report first of all examines the public and private services characteristics inline with service characteristics model. The government and the public sector hav... The motivation and objectives in the private sector centre on profits and hence easily measurable. Two web based service offerings - one each from the public and private sector would be assessed in line with current service marketing models. The report first of all examines the public and private services characteristics inline with service characteristics model. The government and the public sector have committed themselves to service quality and customer orientation (Buckley, 2003). The service quality in the health care sector too has received importance. In public health services the tension between orientations towards care provision and customer satisfaction is believed to be insurmountable. The internet has provided the opportunity to overcome the difficulties in service delivery. In order to augment its service, the UK National Health Service (NHS) started offering 24-hour help and advice service conducted by nurses. This was initially offered over the telephone through NHS Direct. With the advent of technology they soon introduced NHS Direct Online in 1999 Although service industries are themselves quite heterogeneous, there are some service characteristics upon which it is useful to generalize. The characteristics discussed in this right up are: Intangibility Inseparability Heterogeneity Perishability 1.1Intangibility Service are not tangible, as stated by Berry: " A good is an object, a device, a thing; a service is a deed, a performance, an effort" (Berry, 1984). When a service is purchased, there is generally nothing tangible to show for it. This is evidence in both private and public services hooked over the web. As argued by Berry, "Services are consumed but not possessed"

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Department Stores Essay Example for Free

Department Stores Essay Nundies a unique brand of stockings introduced to the market fall 2006. The item to be sold at women’s boutique and specialty shops as well as 10 Neiman Marcus department stores throughout 40 states. Management problem did not seem to be the distribution of the new item in which they shipped out 11, 383 units of Nundies to stores through December 2007 and sold 2007 units online. A unit of Nundies consisted of a package of 5 liners. Nudies is a single use disposable panty that sticks to the inseam of womans pants, leggings, athletic wear, shorts, and jeans. Management seemed to have a difficult time trying to figure out the right strategy to use in an effort to increase the overall repurchase order rate in order to increase the company objective of sales and profits for the 2008 fiscal year. As a note there are other areas that present a problem for the company as well. A.) repurchasing orders are not meeting the goals set, B.) The company also noticed that reorders were only about 10% of the total units sold, C) The online purchases were viewed as a positive, however it was not used frequent enough to measure reorder, D.) One big issue was the amount of panty liners per package, E) The staff at the retail strores thought that Nundies would sell themselves. This was a clear example of communication breakdown. E) To add to the communication issue the sales personnel were not trained to educate the consumer about the product or to even suggest trying the product. F) The other issue that seem to be of big concern was that the displays were getting lost in the stock rooms. Jones 2 Fact: Nundies generated 60% of sales from their largest customer which was Nieman Marcus however low re-order. The company first focus on its marketing concept: How they were going to deliver the new product from its current product lines. The unique idea of required development capabilities into consumer based solutions primarily medical markets and the use of the item for one single use. The product cost per item was .60, One package of panty liners was set at 5per package at $15. The cost to make the plastic container was roughly 0.45 cents. In 2006 Nundies began to run ads in magazines, they distributed throughout New York city based retail buyers, and promotions with gift bags for women for celebrity events. In 2007 the distribution coverage among customers in boutiques and showrooms set up by manufacturer agents organization with product information. The company decided to provide a commission to the sales people at 12% on the wholesale price with a minimum order of 36 packages. The company spent $800,000 on media and print ads and online sales accounted for 385 units wich is roughly around $4275, and store purchases resulted in a minimum of 252 with net profit equaling 850,000. Alternative Courses of Action Nundies can continue to be developed for the women’s wear and specialty stores. The advantage for the company is cost at 14-400 the disadvantage is there was no buy in to keep the reliance on manufacturers agent organization to recruit stores through store show rooms. A second alternative would be to pursue upscale stores accounts, by doing this the company can market via ads, point of sales display and ad plans could be presented, the ability to produce and deliver product in the right quantity and document it. Centralize 300 stores and decentralize 350 stores. The disadvantage is that all the stores would have different merchandise buying practices Jones 3 as well as line fees, warehouse fees, settlement fees, catalogue fees, cooperative ad allowance ( fees are based on annual sales with estimated cost of 35k to 55k). Option 3 Mid level department stores I believe a positive would be centralized (1,793), same costs per size as the 5 upscale department stores. The disadvantage would be to lower the cost via different brand names and packaging (7 per pkg with paper packaging), different price 8 for $10. The fourth alternative positive would be to using different channels by which could be a positive if the company maintains the ability to produce and deliver product in the right quantity and documented also centralize all sales across the board. The company’s target group resulted in woman from 15-60 with an average  income of 25 or more 6% of 18 year old woman surveyed ( 18-45) 84% of woman are interested. 81% yes to products that provide hygiene and benefits of a panty 36% yes to no panty lines and hygiene, 29% will use the item 2-3 times a week, while 35% 3 to 5 times, 19% would likely use the product 6 times a week 17% occasionally. The variances were really shifty when examining where would one likely shop the Nundies of those polled the stats were 38% would shop at an upscale store 49% Mid level department store, 64% Mass department stores and 28% specialty store and 41% online. This all said I truly believe price does matter and the Nundies would likely see more re-orders if they would seek a lower price point or increase the quantity per package. The other target is that Nundies as I see it would likely work well in the fitness stores.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Gallup Poles :: essays research papers

In 1935 a man named George Gallup of Jefferson, Iowa founded and became director of the American Institute for Public Opinion. He is best know for his Gallup Poles which till this day serve as the most respected public opinion surveys on politics. Before all major elections in this country Gallup Poles are conducted to get a firm sense of who is voting for which candidate and often why. Now with out any question the poles themselves are a great tool for politicians in order to gauge where and how hard they need to campaign. In addition it also provides many Americans with a good perspective of how the nation thinks and where they’re beliefs fall in relation to. Those are too benefits to the Gallup Pole, now the question remains, is the government too responsive to public opinion and do polls drive the agenda? However I think it’s a better question to ask if the government can be â€Å"too responsive† to public opinion and if it is bad if polls drive the agenda? First and foremost I believe that the only possible arguments against poles are that 1) they sometimes discourage voters and 2) they may have a little too much impact on the agenda. I believe one small reason for low voter turnout is because due to polls people feel as though they know who is going to win before the elections and don’t feel as though there vote would make a difference. But for the most part polls help out this country as long as their figures are true. We do live in a country ruled by the people and if the poles reflect the will of the people than I don’t see why politicians shouldn’t refer to them. It also makes politicians and their employees take stock of their stances on issues and their relationship with certain groups. For example if a republican woman running for Senator of New Jersey and she sees a pole stating that the majority of Asians don’t support her, she will try to figure out why that is and she will try to remedy the situ ation. Poles open some politicians eyes to some issues they may not know exist. For example say that woman found out that in past years the New Jersey republican party has not even addressed problems brought up by the Asian society and has totally ignored them.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Keeping Pets

The disadvantages of keeping prairie dogs as pets far outweigh the advantages. But the cuteness factor of these unique creatures keep the pet trade moving along with more and more people wanting prairie dogs as pets. Before you take on one of these animals into your care, you should weigh all of the factors of ownership so there will be no surprises once the prairie dog is in your home. Advantages Without a doubt, the cuteness and uniqueness factors of the prairie dog are what interest people the most.Not very many people have prairie dogs so some individuals might get the thrill of having the only prairie dog or dogs in the neighborhood. Their sweet faces and rounded bodies are adorable which attract many to wanting to own one of these animals. Their compact size also means they don't take up a lot of space unlike larger animals such as dogs. Besides their constant need for companionship, care for the prairie dog is minimal. They require a clean cage, food and water, and toys for pl ay and exercise. They can be litter box trained and can be fed a high-quality rabbit pellet along with other vegetation.Disadvantages Some prairie dogs do adapt to captivity but not very often. They can become friendly and sociable with humans but when they don't bond with their owner, they can become stressed and bite. Because these are social creatures, they require a lot of attention from their owner. When left alone, prairie dogs can become depressed leading to behavioral problems. When prairie dogs are handled properly when young, they can socialize and become unique pets. However, many of these animals have been taken from their wild habitat and do not adjust to captivity.This causes many behavior issues such as depression and biting. Because prairie dogs chew, they can escape many types of cages and when loose in the house, they can cause quite a bit of damage. Prairie dogs can also carry diseases. An outbreak of monkeypox was noted in pet prairie dogs in 2003. Plague can als o be transmitted to humans through prairie dogs. The chance of this occurring is low however; cases of human plague have been reported to the CDC as a result of contact with prairie dogs. Finding a veterinarian that is knowledgeable with these animals can be difficult.If an owner is faced with a sick prairie dog, they may not have anyone who can diagnose the problem until it is too late. One of the biggest disadvantages of owning prairie dogs is the legality issue. Following the reported cases of monkeypox in 2003, laws were specifically made to ban the capture of wild prairie dogs and restrict the travel of existing captive prairie dogs. The new laws have made it illegal to move prairie dogs from one state to another or even within a state. Some states have made it illegal to own these animals. If you are planning on relocating, you have to receive special permission to do so.The law does allow owners to transport prairie dogs only in the case of seeking veterinary care or movement to a shelter to be euthanized. Overall, prairie dogs are not the best choices for pets. They should not be owned by someone who does not have the time to devote to their care and more importantly, they should not be purchased for children. The numbers of prairie dogs in the wild have steadily been declining in recent years. Many believe that should the promotion of prairie dogs as pets continue, their future could end up like the black-footed ferret – an animal which has reached near extinction in the wild.

Monday, January 6, 2020

Essay on Silver Pavements Golden Roofs - 893 Words

Moving to America, for many, has been a reason for opportunity and prosperity. Through persistence, hard work and struggles, they pursue to find success in achieving the ‘American Dream’. One of the major struggles is maintaining one’s traditional values and their individuality while assimilating and not forgetting who he or she really is. The narrator, Jayanti, in â€Å"Silver Pavements, Golden Roofs†, by Chitra Divakaruni, illustrates a good example of how a person loses their individuality and self-identity to do whatever it takes to assimilate and fit into the society. From the beginning of the story, Jayanti shows signs of assimilation and acceptance, to become an American. Before reaching America, she promises to give herself a typical†¦show more content†¦Jayanti chooses to disregard her uncle which shows that all she wants is everything to happen the way she imagines. In addition, disappointment is another reason Jayanti choses to let assim ilation take over her self-identity. When she finally realizes that America is not as glamorous as she imagined, read about or saw in pictures, she feels disheartened. When she arrives, she looks forward in seeing, â€Å"neat red brick house with matching flowery drapes, the huge, perfectly mowed lawn green like it had been painted, the shiny concrete driveway on which sat two shiny motorcars†(73). However, she is greeted by a, â€Å"crowded [apartment] with faded, over stuffed sofas and rickety end tables that look like they’ve come from a larger place...the tiny room I am to occupy - it is the same size as my bathroom at home† (73,74). On the other hand, we get a clear picture of what Jayanti wants her life to be like. Her daydream of her â€Å"more exciting matters† in Modern Novel class gives readers a better understanding of her ‘American Dream’. In which she is wearing an ideal American private school clothing, with a typical American hair style, a handsome professor who falls in love with her and asks to marry her, unlike her Aunt, as she comments, â€Å"No arranged marriage like Aunt’s for me† (76). Finally, Jayanti’s first exposure to the world outside her Aunt’s house and the events that lead after, changes who she really is,Show MoreRelatedThe Impossible American Dream Essay1801 Words   |  8 PagesThe Impossible American Dream in Anzia Yezierskas â€Å"America and I,† Uncle and Jayanti from Chitra Divakarunis â€Å"Silver Pavements, Golden Roofs,† and Leon from Fae Myenne Ngs Bone. America has always been characterizedRead MoreEffective Communication in Relationships Essay586 Words   |  3 Pages According to the Project Survive presentation a healthy way to solve problems is to sit down and talk. While talking, each partner should respect each others feelings and remember not to pressure each other. 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